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ySEOtextz0. General Formulation, [0] Action Principle, (1) Action, An action is defined as such a functional I that the classical equation of motion is derived from vanishing of variation of I. I(q)/qi(t)=0, I()/ƒӃ(x)=0 (2) Symmetry, If I is invariant under an operator U, that is: I(U())=I(), then the equation of motion is invariant under U. I()/ƒӃ(x)=0̃I(U())/[U()](x)=0

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